Ancient Ways of Detecting Lies

Being aware of the human ability to deceive along with the human inability to detect it, ancient courts and legal systems relied heavily upon trials by ordeal. The ordeals subjected the accused to all different physical tests and endurance’s. Surviving the ordeals was taken as a divine acquittal. The earliest legal source is found in the Hammurabi codex from the 18th century B.Ci and the Assyrian codex from the 12th century B.Cii that commands those who are suspected of witchcraft or adultery should “fall” into the river. If she survives she will be acquitted and her accuser’s estate will be confiscated. The book of Numbers (5:11-31) describes the “bitter water ordeal” wherein a woman suspected of adultery should drink a glass of holy bitter water and swear in God’s name that she had not betrayed her husband. If she is deceptive and telling lies her thighs and belly will become

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Analog and computerized polygraphs

Polygraph testing equipment can be either analog or computerized (digital). Both systems allow the examiner to view the results while conducting the examination. The advantage of the computerized system is that the software can analyze the subject’s responses in real time, thus rendering the process less subjective. The examiner should use the latest, state-of-the-art lie detection testing equipment to conduct the polygraph exams. When you select an agency to provide polygraph tests, you are relying upon them for the accuracy and validity of the results. Regardless of which system is used, the Examiner is ultimately responsible for verifying the accuracy of the examination. The three components of the polygraph instrument include the cardio-sphygmograph, the pneumograph, and the galvanograph. Blood pressure and heart rate are measured by the cardio-sphygmograph component of the polygraph, which consists of a blood pressure cuff that is wrapped around the subject’s arm. During the questioning the

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Polygraph Exams – Reliability and training

The polygraph, sometimes (and arguably erroneously) called a lie detector test, is an instrument designed to enable a polygraph examiner to determine the veracity of a person’s statement regarding a specific issue. It does this by measuring selected physiological responses using medical grade instrumentation. These responses are digitally recorded and subsequently analyzed by a highly trained polygraph examiner. The instrument gathers data from three major systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine. It monitors and records heart rate, blood pressure and volume, movement of chest cavity, and sweat gland activity. Some record things like arm and leg movement. To begin a polygraph examination an examiner will attach four to six sensors on the examinee’s body, thereby connecting him or her to the polygraph instrument. These sensors collect physiological responses controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). Rate and depth of respiration are measured by pneumographs wrapped around a subject’s chest. Cardiovascular activity

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Examining Different Types of Comparison Questions in a Field Study of CQT Polygraph Technique

Since 1947 when the comparison question was first integrated by John Reid into the test format it became the key target of anti-polygraph criticisers. Not surpris-ingly, the Comparison (control) Question Techniques also happens to be the test technique most frequently used by polygraph examiners. Reid’s Probable Lie Control Question (PLCQ), later labelled as the Non Exclusive Control Question (NECQ) was later changed by Backster into the Exclusive Control Question (ECQ). While the debate which CQ–NECQ or ECQ – is better underway, Raskin introduced the Directed Lie Control Question (DLCQ) in the 1980s. Since then more CQ-related ideas have been developed. Many field examiners feel that what makes the question effective and responsive regardless of the format, whether it is a DLCQ or a PLCQ, is the manner in which the comparison question is introduced to the examinee in the pretest, and Ginton’s latest research supports this notion. To start with,

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Main Features of Polygraph Examiners Training

The qualification of polygraph examiners is one of the most important factors that in-fluence the efficiency of polygraph usage in Russia and all over the world. Regardless of apparent simplicity of principles, underlying polygraph testing, its effec-tive use is possible only by professionally trained specialists with sufficient practical experience as polygraph examiners. The quality, the accuracy and the reliability of the results of polygraph examinations directly depend not only on their conscientiousness and decency, but on the theoretical and practical skills they have obtained in the course of professional training. The education of polygraph examiners requires detailed study of the whole range of modern polygraph techniques, methods of countermeasure detection, psychology and physiology basics, application of adequate psycho-technologies during communication with an examinee, accumulation of practical experience and obviously some personal-ity traits of a person being trained such as interpersonal communication skills, mental flexibility and adaptivity etc. Prior to the

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Use of lie detector in relationships

Trust is the most important factor in a relationship. Almost every relationship is based on trust and once the trust of the other person is lost, the relationship fails. No matter how hard you try to make things work, the relationship cannot survive without trust. It may sometimes take years to regain the lost trust and even after that, it is not certain that the trust will be restored. In many cases, adultery cannot be proved definitively and the only way to be certain about it is by going through the lie detection lie detector test. The results of a polygraph lie detector test are 90-95% definitive and thus can help to mend a broken relationship back. Also the results of such exams also widely depend on the experience of the person conducting the lie detector test. If the person conducting has a lot of experience, then the lie detector

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What Polygraph Examinations Are

The term polygraph – literally meaning “many writings” – pertains to the method of simultaneously recording various physiological activities and observing any pattern changes in them. Those who wish to determine the truth behind a statement will often rely on a polygraph examination, or in simpler terms, a lie detection test. Law enforcers often utilize this method of examination to determine the innocence of an individual. What Comprises a Lie Detector Test A typical lie detector test includes three areas: a pre-test interview wherein the required paperwork is collected and the examinee is asked a few short questions, chart collection wherein different polygraph charts will be collected by the examiner, and the analysis of test data wherein the generated charts are studied and interpreted. This is when the results are determined. If deemed appropriate by the examiner, the examinee will be allowed to explain his or her responses to the

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When Lie Detection Tests are Used

Most people know about the use of lie detectors to detect deception. However, many may have a limited perception as to the range of purposes they can be useful for. Cases When Lie Detection Tests are Used Resolution of Criminal Cases Lie detection systems are most useful in giving strength to an accusation or defense when there is lack of physical evidence that links a suspected offender to the particular criminal case. They also help ensure the truthfulness of the persons testifying in court and the reliability of their testimonies. Since lie detection tests are not infallible, there are several courts in the USA that do not allow the presentation of test results as useful court evidence. However, there are certain states and federal courts that allow it in special cases and when there is mutual agreement between parties involved in the criminal investigation. Scrutiny of Sex Offenders There are

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The Facts You Need to Know

The Facts You Need to Know about Lie Detectors and Their Reliability There are times when you need to ascertain if somebody is telling the truth or not. There are people who are good at telling lies. Sometimes, there are also cases of one person’s word against another. A lie detector test or a polygraph test can be helpful in these instances. The test is considered to be essential for matters that concern security, crimes, and personal affairs. What is a Lie Detector Test? Lie detector tests, commonly referred to as polygraph tests, measure and analyze key body reactions through a series of “yes or no” questions. Based on the person’s body reactions as he answers the questions, these tests can tell whether a person is telling the truth or is lying. The body reactions refer to the physiological functions of the body. These are subconscious reactions to circumstances. These

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The Fundamentals of Lie Detector Testing

Lie detector testing is a method that is commonly used to arrive at the truth when something is being investigated. While the validity of the polygraph tests is still up for debate, modern technology has made it possible for these lie detector tests to yield more accurate results. Polygraphs record and measure several physiological indices during testing. These indicators include blood pressure, blood volume, pulse rate, respiration, and skin conductivity among others. Results are evaluated and compared against accepted standards. Professional opinions are based on the discrepancies noted on the recorded data. Historical Backgrounder In 1921, John Augustus Larson developed an instrument that measured a diverse amount of physiological indices. A medical student at the University of California Berkeley and a police officer assigned to the Berkeley Police Department, Larson used the instrument for forensic investigations. Larson’s instrument provided continuous readings of physiological data which improved on the prevailing system

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